Canada - an original country with a long, complex and exciting history, which can be traced even in state symbols. What can tell her coat of arms or flag?
The first colonies arose on the territory of the country inthe sixteenth century. The inhabitants did not have their own emblems, only the Scottish emigrants had the symbolism granted by Jacob Six. Their coat of arms was a silver shield with a blue Andreevsky cross, and in the center was a royal red lion with a double border in heraldic lilies.
By the middle of the seventeenth century,yet did not exist, remaining a lot of scattered colonies, but not only Scots got the symbolism. In 1637 the coat of arms of Newfoundland was officially approved, representing the shield of the London company, crowned with moose.
By the end of the century, another symbol appeared in the west. There the influence of Hudson's Bay Company increased, which used as a shield a shield with a cross and images of four beavers in the corners, supported by deer on the sides, and topped with a hunting hat on which the dog sits. In 1763 all the colonies were captured by England. But the single Canadian emblem did not appear - the locals used unofficial symbols with images of a beaver or leaves of a Canadian maple.
In July 1867 the colony of Ontario, Nova Scotia,Quebec and New Brunswick have united in the Canadian Confederation. It was a self-governing dominion. There was the first coat of arms of Canada, which was a four-piece shield. On it is the symbolism of each of the provinces - yellow maple leaves, French lilies, English lions and a floating galley. However, some of the territories remained in the Hudson's Gulf, so the emergence of the predecessor of the modern symbol can not be said.
Rupert's land was used as a coat of armsBritish trade flag, putting on it the abbreviation of HBC. In 1871, the territory joined the dominion, followed by British Columbia, and in 1873, Prince Edward Island. The coat of arms of Canada has become too complex and large, so it was decided not to take into account the new provinces and not add their symbols.
The history of the present version is far from extensive. The new country of Canada lasted several decades, before the work on developing the coat of arms began.
In 1919, a committee was formed, and in 1921Georg Fifth approved the state symbol. In 1957, several changes were made to it - making the color of maple leaves red instead of green, simplifying the shape of the shield and the pedestal, and instead of the Tudors placed the crown of Edward the Confessor. The final appearance of the Canadian coat of arms was found only in 1994. A ribbon with the motto "They wanted a better country" was added to the image, and the namet transformed into a chain of stylized red and white maple leaves.
The modern Canadian coat of arms, the description of which can beread above, is used as a symbol of state power. It can be seen in departments and representations, in cabinet ministers, in Parliament and in court, and also on each banknote.
It is interesting that the image is created by a specialmethod of printing, which protects money from the possibility of forgery. The emblem is also used on fifty-cent coins and passport covers. In the army, insignia with the coat of arms can be worn by ensign and scary. On the flag, it can be used for special state reasons - for example, on the day of the century of Canada. Finally, you can see the coat of arms on official documents issued by the government and parliament, ministries, the supreme court, as well as on debates and embassies abroad. The use of a state symbol for commercial purposes is prohibited by law.
The crown over the coat of arms belongs to Saint Edward andwas used for the coronations of Canadian monarchs. She reports on the state status of the country. The crest reminds of the coat of arms of Great Britain, but there is also a difference - the British gold lion does not hold a red maple leaf in its hand, which serves as a symbol of Canada's sovereignty. In addition, such an animal is a detail of the flag of the governor general.
Burelet - two interlaced cloth tubes, onThe arms are made in white and red. The heraldic shield is made up of five parts. Four of them indicate the countries where the ancestors of the Canadians came from - three gold lions on a worm are associated with England, red on gold with Scotland, a yellow harp located in blue, representing Ireland, lilies against the background of the same color serve as an indication of France. The fifth part is occupied by three red leaves of the Canadian maple on a silver field, they symbolize unity, as they grow from one branch.
The shield is girdled with a ribbon with the motto "They wished for the bestcountry ", the same inscription is used at the highest civilian award. From below is a turquoise ribbon with the inscription "From sea to sea", taken from the biblical psalm. In 2006, it was proposed to change the text so that it reflects the territory correctly - Canada has access to three oceans: the Atlantic, the Arctic and the Pacific. On the edges of the shield support the English lion and the Scottish unicorn, borrowed from the British symbolism. They keep the flagpoles. On one - the royal flag of Britain, and on the other - France. As a basis for the coat of arms, a platform of heraldic plants, Welsh and English roses, is used.
To understand the history reflected in the symbolismit is not enough to know the meaning of just one emblem. It is better to study both the flag and the coat of arms of Canada. The state cloth is covered with three vertical stripes - two narrow red on the edges and a wide white in the center. In the middle there is also a stylized image of the maple leaf. Red stripes symbolize the shores of the oceans. Sheet - the unity of the nation. Red is associated with the Cross of St. George, and white with the French monarchy. The way to choosing a flag was as complex as in the case of the coat of arms - the modern version was adopted only in 1965, after considering more than two thousand different design ideas.