Organization of educational activitiesis regulated by Federal Law No. 273. The normative act regulates the social relations that arise in the field of education. Let us further consider the specifics of educational activity.
The organization of educational activities is based on the following provisions:
- Recognition of the priority of training.
- Ensuring the rights of people to receive education, the inadmissibility of discrimination.
- The humanitarian nature of the industry, priorityhealth and human life, individual freedoms, mutual respect, citizenship, hard work, legal culture, responsibility, respect for the environment.
- Formation of a common educational space in Russia, development and protection of ethno-cultural traditions and features of the peoples of the country.
- Creation of proper conditions for the integration of domestic and foreign educational systems on a mutually beneficial and equitable basis.
- Secular nature of pedagogical activity in municipal and state institutions of the appropriate profile.
- Freedom to choose the method of education in accordance with the needs and inclinations of a person, the formation of conditions for self-realization.
- Ensuring the right to receive education during life in accordance with the needs of the subject, the adaptability of the system to the characteristics of development, the level of training, the interests of the individual.
- The autonomy of educational institutions, academic freedoms and the rights of workers and students, public reporting and information openness of institutions.
- Democracy in the management of education.
- Inadmissibility of elimination or restriction of competition.
- A combination of contractual and state regulation of relations.
Legislation defines the circle of persons whoare authorized to work in the field of education. The main ones are educational organizations. In cases provided for in regulatory enactments, training may be conducted by individual entrepreneurs. Organizations engaged in educational activities are created in the form provided for in the Civil Code for non-profit organizations. Spiritual institutions are formed according to the rules established by the normative acts on freedom of religion, conscience and religious associations.
Types of institutions
Classification is carried out depending on the subject who created the institution. On this basis, organizations are divided into:
- The state. These institutions are formed by the Russian Federation or the region of the country.
- Municipal. They are created by the MO.
- Private. Such institutions are formed by citizens or legal entities in the manner prescribed by law.
Types of educational institutions
Educational organizations are classified according to the content of plans, the implementation of which acts as their main activity. According to this feature, there are:
- DOW. They are institutions in which pre-school education is provided, care and supervision of pupils is provided.
- General educational institutions, which conduct training under the programs of NOU, LLC and SOE.
- Professional institutions. They provide training in secondary vocational education programs.
- High schools. In these institutions, training is carried out in the w / o and scientific programs.
They have subjects with a higher or secondaryvocational education and meet the requirements specified in the qualification guides, as well as professional standards. The normative acts provide for the nomenclature of posts of employees and heads of educational institutions. It is approved by the Government.
Legal status of specialists
Under the legal status of a teachershould be understood as a set of his labor, social guarantees, compensations, restrictions, responsibilities and responsibilities. They are established in the legislation. In Russia, the status of laborers is considered special in society. In accordance with this, proper conditions are created for them to carry out their pedagogical activities. In Russia, specialists are given freedoms and rights, state guarantees, social support aimed at ensuring high professional level of employees, increasing their importance, as well as the prestige of their work.
In carrying out educational activities, employees of organizations enjoy the rights to:
- Freedom of teaching, expression, independence. The latter should be understood as non-interference in their work by outside actors.
- Freedom to choose and apply scientifically based tools, methods and forms of education and training.
- Creative initiative, development and use of author's programs and techniques within specific subjects, courses, disciplines, plans.
- The choice of textbooks and teaching aids, materials and other means in accordance with the educational program in the manner specified in the legislation.
- Participation in the development of curricula, calendar schedules, courses, subjects, disciplines.
- Realization of scientific and technical, research, creative, international and experimental activities, introduction and development of innovations.
- Free use of information resources, visits to libraries.
- Participation in the management of the educational institution, including in the collegial bodies, in the manner provided for in the statute.
- Association in the public trade-union organizations in forms and under the rules established by the law.
- Participation in the discussion of issues related to the activities of the educational institution, including through the governing bodies and public associations.
- Appeal to the commission, authorized to resolve disputes between subjects of the educational process.
- Protection of dignity and honor, a fair and objective trial of violations of the rules of professional ethics.
It is formed in accordance with the position of a specialist. During working hours the employee of the educational institution includes:
- Educational pedagogical activity.
- Educational work.
- Individual interaction with students.
- Research, scientific and creative work.
- Other activities provided for in the job description or on an individual basis. To her, for example, is diagnostic, methodical, preparatory work, etc.
Specific duties of a specialistare established in the employment contract and job description. The ratio of teaching and other educational activities within the working week or academic year is established by the relevant local acts of the organization. This takes into account the qualifications and specialty of the employee, as well as the number of hours according to the plan.
Direct educational activity
It is carried out together with adults. Educational activities - this, in simple words, work on the education and upbringing of the child. It can manifest itself in various forms: game, research, communication, labor, music and art, etc. Educational activity is the interaction with the learner, aimed at mastering a certain material in one or several areas.
Working with preschoolers
Educational activities in the DOW are conducted using various methods and forms of interaction. Their choice depends on:
- Solving specific problems in training.
- Contents of the curriculum.
- Degrees of development of educational program.
Distinguish the following types of work, depending on the content of training programs:
- Combined educational activity is a combination of different methods and forms or didactic tasks that do not have a logical connection. For example, after drawing a moving game is carried out.
- Comprehensive educational activities arework, involving the implementation of tasks by different means in the presence of associative links between them. For example, after a conversation about the rules of fire safety, a thematic poster begins to be painted. In this case, one action dominates, and the next one complements it.
- Integrated educational activities.It involves the connection of knowledge from different disciplines on an equal basis. At the same time, integration is not mechanical or arbitrary. The program of educational activity in this case must be formed in such a way that knowledge enriches and complements each other in the process of solving didactic tasks.
Complex work is now considered to be a priority. It allows you to solve several tasks simultaneously.
Structure of work
Implementation of educational activitiesconditionally divided into three parts. They are inextricably linked by a common methodology and content. These parts are: the beginning, course and completion of activities. The key task of the teacher is to clearly define the purpose of the process. The specialist should establish the nature of the educational activity: developing or exclusively training. In the latter case, when you interact with an adult, you accumulate the necessary experience. With the developing nature of the activity, children themselves acquire knowledge, using the acquired skills. In the process of teaching, the teacher draws in the participation of all children, taking into account the individual characteristics of each of them. In the course of interaction, children develop skills, the ability to analyze and control their behavior.
Specificity of lessons
Educational activity of children hasspecificity. First of all, it manifests itself in the structure of studies. In particular, at an early age they are held in the form of games. The number of children participating in the lesson will depend not only on their specific age, but also on the content of the curriculum. The work must have a visual-effect character. In older groups, children are attracted to the organization of the situation. This greatly contributes to the enhancement of cognitive interest. Meanwhile, the nature of the formulation and content of tasks will be of key importance. Over time, children become accustomed to the established rules of conduct. The specialist regularly reminds them before and during the session. Upon completion, the teacher, together with the children, draws a general conclusion. In this case, the expert creates such conditions, in which the final conclusion would be the result of the mental work of the students.
Educational (pedagogical) activity is realized using various methods. They are divided into 5 categories:
- Information and material means. In the traditional sense, they include visual aids, equipment and other items, through which cognitive activity is carried out.
- Language facilities.This category is considered quite extensive. It includes not only spoken (native and foreign) languages, but also specialized ones. The latter, for example, include the languages of road signs, electrical circuits, drawings, art and so on.
- Logical means.Verbal discursive thinking is considered the highest degree of manifestation of mental faculties. Logical means are formed in a person gradually by means of visual-effective and imaginative perception. They contribute to the formation of skills to raise and understand questions, find solutions to them, make the necessary operations for this in the mind and draw the right conclusions.
- Mathematical tools. They are formed with the appearance of the child's notions of numbers and accounts. The development of mathematical tools continues in the process of studying the exact sciences.
It should be said that the improvement of theseabove the tools is a fairly extensive and almost unexplored problem. Her research is extremely necessary at the present time. Improving the funds will have an impact on the development of educational activities in general.