Staircase design, its appearance, convenienceand security are essential for any home. The successful design of the staircase increases the general level of comfort of people who will use it in the future, and also affects the level of ergonomics of the room. Given the importance and significance of the design, practically all of its elements are subjected to regulation at the legislative level: the width and length of the span, the size of the fences, the number and height of the steps of the stairs (GOST and SNiP).
The basic dimensions of the staircase design are counted even at the stage of the design of the house. The width and height of the steps of the ladder allows the builders to calculate the most important parameters of the future building.
Often when developing a project of stairsare guided by the current rules and wishes of the owner of the building. Compliance with administrative documents governing construction and repair work is mandatory. After all, the drawing of a beautiful stunning staircase is half the battle. The design should be functional, reliable, convenient and safe.
Particular attention is paid to stairs in public buildings or educational institutions.
Documents that contain standards, norms and rules, in accordance with which all staircases must be erected, are GOST and SNiP.
For stairs of concrete and reinforced concrete there are GOST 8717.1-84 and 8717.0-84. The last document also applies to stairs made of metal structures.
Some of their points describe how highthere must be marches, how many steps they should be placed in and what height they should be made. It also specifies the angle at which the stairwell, the width of the site and the type of fences are placed.
Some dimensions are given with specific values, others are the range within which the master builders can choose the numbers suitable for them.
The angle at which the staircase will be locatedThe design in a private house, multi-storey apartment or a public building is the recommended value. The minimum angle is 20 degrees, the maximum angle is 50 degrees.
A smaller angle indicates that the staircaseis low, that is, it is sloping. Of course, it's easy enough to climb these steps and reduce the risk of falling, but this design is many times longer and takes much more space. Often, designers encourage owners to save living space by shortening the length of the staircase. GOST sets the maximum allowable angle of inclination at 50 degrees, as steeper steps are not safe for a rising person.
However, there are exceptions, such as the installation of stairs to attics and cellars. Here, steep staircases can be solved because of their infrequent use and limited space.
Optimum (for a private house) is a flight of stairs inclined at an angle of 30-35 degrees. This range of indicators corresponds to the natural rhythms of human movement.
The most important parameters affecting the ladder design are:
These data, which are determined by constructiondrawings, influence on what will be the height of steps of stairs, GOST is also necessarily taken into account. In addition, the figures obtained allow us to see what the total height of the ladder, the length of the marches, the number and size of the turning areas will be.
The existence of established parameters is notmeans that the ladder design does not need to be calculated. Individual projects are needed, since many factors influence the final dimensions (the material of the staircase and fencing, the type of their decoration, the materials used in the interior design).
The angle of inclination of a structure depends on how many steps there are, on their height, and also on the distance between them.
Standards define administrative documents -GOST and SNIP. The height of the steps of the ladder can be from 12 cm to 22 cm. The choice of a particular size is influenced by the location of the structure and its purpose. For those ladders, which are intensively and often used, it is recommended to choose a value of about 14.5-17.5 cm.
Speaking of the depth of the tread (horizontalplane, to which the person steps), it is necessary to indicate its optimum index: the allowed range is from 25 cm to 40 cm. However, the most convenient are the steps, the width of which is 30-37 cm.
The justification for these values is the sizefeet of the average person, as well as the width of his step. If for some reason the optimal parameters can not be applied or the planned slope of the ladder prevents the placement of steps of this size, the project developers reduce the depth to 14.5 cm. In this case they provide a protrusion that increases the depth by two or three centimeters (overhang of the step).
The height of the degrees of any ladder directly depends on the size of the riser and the thickness of the step itself. A riser is a vertical element located between two tears.
As already noted, the standard step heightladders is 14.5-17.5 cm. At the same time, the process of calculating parameters provides for mandatory testing for convenience and safety. To do this, fold the width of the tread and the height of the riser (according to the drawing). If the amount is in the range from 44 cm to 48 cm, then the ladder can be considered safe.
A standard flight of stairs on average contains 12-15 steps. This number allows most people to quietly climb from the beginning to the end of the structure or to the landing.
To determine how many steps an erected ladder will have, the wizards use the following method:
This algorithm is rather simplified, since inThe process of real calculations takes into account many other factors (the thickness of the flooring on the first and second floors, the type of the ladder, the finishing stages).
Today, the choice of staircase design for many home owners is facilitated by the existence of ready-made modules made of high-quality concrete (grade B15 or higher).
They are manufactured by certified manufacturers, so all the requirements of GOST and SNiP (the height of the stairs, their depth and width, as well as the angle of inclination) are met.
The use of such structures significantlyfacilitates, accelerates and lowers the erection of stairs. RCstairs are very durable and can be decorated with various materials and techniques, so they are installed both in residential buildings and in public buildings.
The height of the steps of the stairs (GOST isprovides) should be the same for all elements of the ladder. This is a mandatory requirement, which is designed to ensure the balance of a person moving between floors.
In addition, experts argue that peopleit is more comfortable to complete the ascent or descent with the foot that they started moving up the stairs. Therefore, many designs contain an odd number of degrees.
If the area between the marches consists of several levels, the difference in their height should be equal to the height of the step.
When designing screw or spiralThe designers have to deal with the staircase steps. Requirements regarding their height remain the same as for direct, rotary or combined structures.
However, due to the specific shape of the steps, the depth of the tread and the width of the ladder itself are strictly regulated.
This is due to the fact that it is not so convenient and safe to move around the screw structures, as in the traditional ones. For this reason, designers are not advised to build such a ladder as the main one.
Often, spiral staircases serve to liftattic or as an auxiliary means of transportation. True, many modern screw-type designs have a very beautiful design and become the main decoration of the room. To increase the comfort of future tenants, their width and height between the steps of the staircase should be as close as possible to the optimal parameters.
Spiral staircases are absolutely not suitable forinstallation in public buildings and educational institutions. Also, they should be avoided if a person with limited mobility lives in the house. However, if the owner nevertheless very much wants to see in his house just such a ladder design, he should place all the significant objects and rooms (bedroom, kitchen, living room) on the first floor.