Functioning and formation, as well as the role ofManagement as a specific structure is determined by its essence. There are several elements in its composition. Before you name them, it should be said that the management system is a form of implementing the development and interaction of regulatory relations. They are expressed first of all in principles and laws, goals, functions, methods, structure and the process itself. The structure includes frames, objects and other elements. The mechanism of public management is considered one of the main instruments for regulating social relations. What is this element?
The mechanism of management of a society in any countryis, above all, a necessity related to the achievement of development goals and the implementation of one of the directions of domestic policy. This element is formed and changed purposefully with the participation of people regulating a complex of forms, methods, functions, incentives and levers. This is necessary mainly to achieve the most effective regulatory structure in specific historical conditions. This is the main role of government in society.
The qualitative level of this component of the structureregulation of relations, the degree of its perfection, as well as compliance with the basic requirements depend first of all on the professionalism and the level of staff training, their skills and ability to identify and give an objective assessment of the most significant components and relationships, the features of manifestation and the consequences of the development of the detected trends.
The mechanism of management of a society in any countryincludes several fundamental links: common functions, principles, methods and goals. The society, being a multipurpose complex system, requires ensuring the clear interaction of all subsystems and the solution of the assigned tasks. Considering the state administration and society from this position, several components that form the regulatory lever are singled out. In particular, they include socio-cultural, organizational elements.
At the same time, the level ofwhich interacts economics and management. In this regard, the corresponding element is also present in the control lever. According to a number of experts, it is the economic component that provides, in many respects, the effectiveness of the process. However, the achievement of the tasks set and the development of the social structure are ensured by a combination of elements.
Social structures are simultaneouslyobject and subject of management. This fact makes it necessary to consider these two components under conditions of constant interaction with each other - as a controlled and control elements. The subject (the second component) is a part of the object. Dimensions and boundaries of the first are closely related to the features and scales of the second. This causes the fact that the activity of the control structures is determined mainly by the properties of the controlled element.
In the most general form, management objects should beto refer human labor and man. In a broad sense, these are communities and large groups of people (industry, region, enterprise). As objects, specific functions can also act, for example, country management, finance, sales, personnel, and so on.
There are three categories. They include production facilities. This type includes the elements that make up the organizational management of social production. The second kind is structural objects. They represent the links of the entire management system. And the third kind are functional objects. They are distinguished by a special management mechanism. As a result, the generalized form of the regulatory object is a complex of human activities, isolated from the social environment or as a special function for which a special regulatory lever is needed, or as a link in the structure.
The beginning of the formation of these components coincides withtheir organizational allocation as the main structure-forming elements of the social structure. For example, such a link may be a manufacturing enterprise. It is in some way the initial, starting point of reference levels in both the macro-system of economic management, and in the microstructure of regulation of activities within the enterprise itself. Such a component is the basis for the formation of production facilities for regulating different scales - the region, the industry, and the overall national economy.
State management and society arestructures, constantly interacting with each other. The allocation of production objects underlies the creation of a regulatory structure, where each link is also a structural element (object). These components are different in labor and functions. As a result, this or that management institution is formed. The formation and development of all these components underpin the continuous improvement of the structure of social regulation.
There are several aspects that have the greatestmeaning in the process under consideration. Among them, in particular, include technical and technological, social, organizational and economic factors. Aspects that reflect the requirements of objective principles and laws of social development, have a dialectical relationship.
Object as a mechanism for managing society ina country is formed as a result of some form of combination of territorial and sectoral regulation based on the level of decentralization or centralization. Factors forming a particular object affect the internal structure, scale, general status, social status and so on.
What is today the main subjectregulation? Without a doubt, this state. Although, meanwhile, recently there has been a tendency to delegate to it a number of its functions (regulatory, organizational, normative and other) to other entities. Defining the state as a managing component, it should be said that this structure involves the unification of interrelated organizations, institutions that ensure the regulation of relations and activities of people, nations, classes, groups.
In the scientific literature today under the statemanagement usually means the regulating and organizing, practical influence of a given subject on the life of people, based on the power of power. The purpose of this impact is to preserve, streamline or transform the position of citizens. Objectively, the need for state power regulation is determined by several factors. First of all, these are general socio-political and historical prerequisites. In addition, the specific factors specific to a particular society are of no small importance.
The mechanism of society management in a countryis formed for the structured support of the functioning of the branches of human activity. In addition, due to the activity of regulatory levers, conditions are created for the survival of communities of people. Among the factors that ensure this, in particular, include new forms of labor activity, management function, which includes the initial maintenance of the society in the information plan (in particular, the collection of various information about the work, etc.).
Gradually, a layer of people emerged from society,the main occupation of which was the regulation of relations within the civil society. As a result, many posts and posts were formed: military leaders, job managers, accountants and others. This layer was an early bureaucracy. In the course of development, the stratification of the society became more and more obvious, which often led to the seizure of power by this or that group and the adaptation of society to its interests.
Separation of society with the typicalformed groups and strata of conflictual relationships and conflicting interests led to the need to create a political function to regulate social contradictions and relationships. In connection with the fact that the state apparatus was seized by the privileged strata, the regulation function ensured in the main the domination of precisely these groups over others.
To ensure targeted managementinteractions between different population groups, it was necessary to create certain rules for citizens' behavior and to form vital forms of productive human activity. It was the installation and maintenance of conditions for the normal existence of all strata of the society that were the main tasks of the state. Among other things, power structures should ensure the protection of the living space of the developing population.
It should be noted that over timeThe above factors have not lost their relevance at all. On the contrary, that complex of initial tasks, the solution of which must be carried out with the help of leverage, became much more complicated. Changes that occur in the modern world in the field of technology, science, information technology, put forward the problem of ensuring human security at the forefront.
Today, the need for statemanagement is determined by the need to ensure the implementation of domestic policies that are aimed at the most effective use of labor, material, natural, information resources. The main tasks of the power regulation function in the modern state are also the fair distribution of profits, guaranteeing the main social rights and maintaining order. To ensure favorable conditions, it is necessary to create and implement state programs. They should ensure a minimum standard of living or education or training.
It should be noted that the question of the rolestate apparatus in the management and modernization of the society is the most urgent problem for the social and humanitarian sciences. Confirmation of this can be found even in the fact that there is a sufficiently large number of points of view on this issue. The modern rapidly changing world forces us to look for ways to adapt to its changes. In this context, the state acts as the most effective regulatory leverage that can mobilize resources and implement technological and economic breakthroughs in the shortest possible time.
Stability in the social sphere is ensured byif there is a well-thought-out strategy for changing the existing management structures with a gradual, logically consistent introduction of better ones in their place. Objectively, the significance of the rational structure of the state apparatus is especially clearly manifested during the transitional periods, when the old political scheme is replaced by a new one.