England, Great Britain - these concepts for the wholeworld are the embodiment of traditions. Strict adherence to established customs in private life and in the public order, even if it looks archaic and brings inconvenience, is a typically British trait.
The division into separate areas, having a singleadministrative, judicial, military and financial system, was formed on the basis of the habitats of individual tribal groups and goes back centuries. Many of today's counties of England are of ancient origin. Gradually, these areas were formed in the form of possessions belonging to one person - the Count.
By the time of the formation of Englishearly feudal state - IX-X centuries - these areas were separate independent kingdoms (for example Sussex and Essex), duchies (such as Yorkshire, Cornwall or Lancashire) or simply hereditary allotments (Berkshire). Later, having joined the united Anglo-Saxon kingdom, the counties of England retained their borders, having received as ruler not an hereditary ruler, but a lord-governor appointed by the supreme monarch. The administrative, military and economic principle of division was added representative: elective quotas in the first legislative bodies were distributed on the basis of dividing the country into historical counties.
Origin of the English designationadministrative districts, remaining in the form of a suffix-shire in traditional names - Lancashire, Yorkshire, Derbyshire, etc., - very ancient. It goes back to the Old German scira, which had a meaning close to the concepts of "care," "governance," etc. The English counties, which in their name have the suffix -shire, today occupy just over half of the territory of modern England, while similar word-formations have survived and actively used in the former British colonies - Australia and the United States.
Even at the time of the formation of a single kingdomthere was a system of government that retained the external features to this day: at the head of the county of England - the Lord-Governor, at the head of the bodies exercising judicial power, as well as police and power functions - the sheriff. In the course of numerous reforms, territorial and functional divisions, several types of administrative units with legal peculiarities emerged, which it is rather difficult to understand at first.
The upper level of the administrative-territorial units of England - the regions introduced in 1994 at the suggestion of the government, which was headed by John Major. There are 9 of them:
In accordance with the legislative act of 1997the territory of England is divided into 48 counties, which are called ceremonial, that is, they have at their head appointed queen lords - governors, sheriffs, etc. This type includes, for example, the largest county in England - North Yorkshire.
These structures include two other types: metropolitan, created on the basis of large urban areas (major cities), and non-metropolitan - having in their composition several districts or districts with their own bodies of self-government. The latter kind of counties include several formations that do not have a smaller organizational division and are deprived of their governing bodies by decree of Margaret Thatcher's cabinet in 1986.
These basic elements of the administrativeThe devices of England are otherwise called governorships, or lieutenancy areas (Lieutenancy areas), or - unofficially - geographical counties. An important and ancient element of their identification are the arms and flags of the counties of England, created on the basis of the heraldic symbols of the Middle Ages.
These territories - and the largest county inEngland North Yorkshire, and the smallest - London City - have become the basis for dividing the country into 48 postal regions with their indexes, which facilitates the work of the Royal Postal Service.
Today in England there are 6 metropolitan counties - the metropolitan district, created on the basis of the largest urban settlements:
The counties of this type are the "invention" of M.'s office Thatcher. They have several smaller administrative units - districts and districts with their own independent self-government bodies. Greater London - an education that has a special status, characterized by a specific management system.
There are 28 ceremonial counties, among which are everything,In the name, the suffix -shire, as well as East Sussex, Devon, Dorset, Cumbria, West Sussex, Kent, Norfolk, Suffolk, Somerset, Surrey, and Essex, have the status of non-metropolitan, that is, consisting of several districts, - General District Council (except Berkshire).
These ancient names, sounding for the anglophile as music, are the personification of this ancient and great country.