Inflammatory processes in the intestine are knownmany. Symptoms such as diarrhea, bloating and flatulence, are found in almost every person. Nevertheless, there are diseases of the intestines that are chronic and progressive. One of such pathologies is terminal ileitis. The main sign of this disease is inflammation of the end parts of the small intestine. Despite the fact that the pathology is not considered rare, the reasons for its appearance are not known to the end. Given the progressive nature of the disease, constant supportive care is needed.
The disease "terminal ileitis" is characterized byinflammatory phenomena in the small intestine. Most often the distal department is affected. Another name for the pathology is Crohn's disease. In addition to the terminal department (ileum), other parts of the gastrointestinal tract may be involved. Usually the inflammatory process proceeds in a fragmentary manner. That is, only certain parts of the digestive tract are affected, which alternate with a healthy tissue. This is the difference of Crohn's disease from another chronic pathology of the intestine - ulcerative colitis. Terminal ileitis is also called uncharacteristic granuloma and lymphadenitis. In addition to the inflammatory process, pathology is characterized by the formation of ulcers and scars in the lumen of the intestine.
The etiology of this disease is not known exactly. There are several theories of the development of this pathology. Each of them has confirmation, but, nevertheless, does not give a complete answer to the question of etiology. It is known that Crohn's disease (terminal ileitis) develops under the influence of provoking factors. Among them:
In most cases, terminal ileitisdevelops suddenly. People usually find out about the presence of the disease only when symptoms appear. By this time, pronounced changes can already occur in the lumen of the intestine. In the first place the mucosa is exposed to inflammation. The lesion is 10 to 20 cm in length. With the progression of ileitis, the deeper layers are also involved in the inflammatory process, granulomas (tubercles) appear. In the intestinal wall erosions are formed first, then ulcers. Also, inflammation can spread to other areas. Most often it is the large intestine and PDK. The affected areas are clearly delineated from healthy tissue. Another link in the pathogenesis is inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes located along the bowel. A prolonged course of pathology can lead to the formation of scar tissue and stenosis.
The later symptoms include anemia,asthenia (weight loss), general weakness. In addition to the characteristic clinical picture, there may be other manifestations. Among them: inflammation of the mucous membrane of the oral or nasal cavity, dermatological disorders, pain in the joints. It should be remembered that the disease can spread to any part of the digestive tract. Therefore, new symptoms may appear, depending on the localization of the process. This may be a violation of swallowing, epigastric pain, heartburn, a tendency to constipation or, on the contrary, diarrhea.
Also the main feature is the progressive andrecurrent nature of pathology. Changes in laboratory parameters are observed during coprological examination and in the KLA. A blood test indicates the presence of anemia, and an increase in the number of leukocytes and an acceleration of the ESR are also observed. Study of feces is also very important. In the coprogram, it is possible to detect the appearance of bacteria, leukocytes, and blood. The main method of diagnosis is X-ray examination with the introduction of contrast. The images show large granulomatous formations in the gut lumen. Such changes are called "cobblestone pavement". Endoscopic examination is also performed - colonoscopy. It gives an idea of the size of the inflammatory process, the presence of ulcers, cicatricial changes.
It should be remembered that Crohn's disease is heavypathology, the treatment of which can last for years. With the progression of destructive processes and the lack of adequate therapy, complications often develop. These include: bleeding, intestinal obstruction, cicatricial strictures and peritonitis. All these processes require urgent surgical intervention (resection of the affected area).